Smoking and IBS
Written by: Emily Downward | Last reviewed: June 2016.
- Health effects of cigarette smoking, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed online on 4/6/16 at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/.
- Smoking. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Accessed online on 4/6/16 at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/smoking.html.
- Smoking and the digestive system. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed online on 4/6/16 at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/smoking/Pages/facts.aspx.
- Smoking and your digestive system. UPMC, University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. Accessed online on 4/6/16 at http://www.upmc.com/patients-visitors/education/gastro/Pages/smoking-and-your-digestive-system.aspx.
- Thomas GAO, Rhodes J, Ingram JR. Mechanisms of disease: nicotine – a review of its actions in the context of gastrointestinal disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;2(11):536-544.